The Air Force Memorial structures represent the long history of air and space aviation from the balloon reconnaissance, through Orville Wright’s first military flight at Fort Myers, to the Air Force of today. The Air Force Memorial provides a visual representation of the cumulative history of the United States Air Force. The Air Force Memorial uses design, inscriptions and sculpture to represent the Air Force heritage including those intrepid pioneers in balloon reconnaissance and the advent of manned flight in air and space.

The design of the Air Force Memorial symbolizes reaching for the stars, soaring above the earth and executing a bomb burst maneuver, best demonstrated by the United States Air Force Thunderbirds. Our tribute and honor to the Airmen heritage is represented in the 8-foot tall bronze United States Air Force Honor Guard, standing watch over the Memorial grounds. To experience the heritage of the Air Force, visit the Air Force Memorial in Arlington County, Virginia.

The Air Force Memorial is rooted in the necessary symbolic transition of making the medium of the Air Force visible. The Navy has the medium of water, which can be shown in fountains. The Army has the medium of land, which can be referenced with mountains and plains. The Air Force has the medium of air, which is much more difficult to illustrate than water or land. The core of this effort lies in making air tangible and making technology felt. Before the Memorial could take shape, the critical component, the site, had to be analyzed for its informational and formational impact. In this case, the promontory overlooking Washington brings to bear the possibility of launching the Memorial through the edge condition it presents.

The Memorial itself is 270 feet high and appears to be soaring. Its array of arcs against the sky evokes a modern image of flight by jet and space vehicles. At the same time, it enshrines the past in permanent remembrance of the pioneers of flight who came before, and pays homage to those of the future.

Once the decision was made to incorporate vertical elements, the number three became important. "Three" is resonant with significant associations for the Air Force, including the three core values of today: Integrity first, Service before self, and Excellence in all we do. It is also the smallest number of elements needed to define and enclose a space. The spires are asymmetrical and dynamic. Each is a different height, causing the view of the Memorial to be different at every angle.

"The new design gracefully evokes the symbolism associated with flight and with the United States Air Force. The design also enhances this already spectacular site on the escarpment of Washington's Monumental Core. The proposed Air Force Memorial will provide a striking gateway into the Nation's Capital from Virginia."
The National Capitol Planning Commission
March 12, 2003

The Memorial is scaled for visibility over street infrastructure. Its height was determined to be at least equal to building heights visible on the Arlington horizon, from both near and distant views. The proportional relationship of the height of the spires to width of their base is intended to make the Memorial stand out as a marker for the I-395 entry to Washington. At the same time, care is taken not to diminish the view of the Nation's Capital beyond.

A metallic, stainless steel surface forms the equilateral triangles that form the Memorial spires with the jointing details specifically minimized. Each spire is illuminated by its own light source. At the entrance from the west stands the Honor Guard, symbolizing patriotism and power. From here, the bluestone path moves north to the Glass Contemplation Wall, a glazed independent panel with meditative inscriptions. It symbolizes the presence of all those who are gone. Halfway on the journey back and forth, one will find the heart of the Memorial - a triangular prow bounded by three spires. Standing within the soaring forms, one can see the Washington Monument. A stepped stone plinth runs parallel with the pathway and can act as seating for special events as well as for the "trooping of the colors."

The lasting landscaping edges the active site with thick rows of mature trees, welcomed for their shade. lined mostly along the west of the complex and carefully shaped to intensify the Memorial experience.

James Ingo Freed
September 15, 2004

The original concept for representing the Honor Guard, with its meaning and importance to the military tradition, was originally conceived in the form of a proposal for a relief. While it started as four people standing at attention, a sculpture by its very nature, it evolved toward a larger and more compelling conception. The sculptures act as a human complement to the overwhelming steel spires of the Memorial.

The purposefully undefined figures of the Honor Guard soon became recognizable as individuals. The figures came into view as unique people, with faces and bodies infused with life, inspiring connections to the real people who serve and sacrifice. They reflect the diversity of gender and race that strengthens the Air Force and the Nation.

Through this sculpture, visitors to the Memorial encounter the iconic notion of the Honor Guard. They become aware of the presence of those who have and continue to protect the dignity of service to the country. I hope this honor guard elicits reaction through art and form, and stands as a testament to enduring service and sacrifice for the public good.

Zenos Frudakis, Sculptor
June 2006

For more information about the mission of the U.S. Honor Guard, visit their website:

The Air Force Memorial staff has the privilege to support requests to fly United States or United States Air Force flags on the main flag pole of the Memorial. For more information, click here.